Dec 26, 2007

Torrents Introduction

What is torrensts ?

Torrent is a peer-to-peer protocol, which allows users to connect directly to each other to send and receive parts of a file through a central server called a "tracker". The tracker itself does not contain or transmit any information pertaining to the actual content. It only coordinates and manages connections between peers.
GET A CLIENT In order to use BitTorrent you need to download a Bittorrent client This will allow you to grab the files described in the. Torrent. There are many clients currently available that can be downloaded for free of the web. Here are some of them:
* Original Bittorrent
* Azureus
* Shadow Experimental
* Burst
* BT++
* Shareaza
CONFIGURE Once you have downloaded one of the above eventually check the configuration options in order to tune it to your bandwidth (some clients like Azureus have a configuration wizard):
1. Your upload speed shouldn't be set to more than 80 to 90% of your maximum upload speed. For example, if you have a max upload of 25Kb/s your BitTorrent upload speed shouldn't be more than 20 to 22Kb/s. Using all of it would cause your download speed to be severely lowered, this because a small upload percentage is needed by BitTorrent to communicate with the tracker and the other peers.
2. Don't be too generous and restrain the maximum number of uploads -- how many simultaneous leeches will benefit from your seed -- to a reasonable number. Let's say you have one active torrent and 20Kb/s of total bandwidth. With 4 max uploads, 4 people will receive 5Kb/s from you, which is nice. But if you have 3 active torrents and allow 8 uploads, 24 sad guys (3 torrents with 8 connections on each) will only get less than 1Kb/s which is poor
3. When zero means unlimited you shouldn't leave any values anywhere at zero. Indicate high numbers like 99 or less, according to your tastes. It's just a precaution as some clients experienced memory overload while reaching their unlimited limits. Furthermore, zero seldom means "no connections from peers", ie. no seeding... Don't try that unless you want to be banned from our tracker.
Bit Torrenting consists of three parts:
* The Torrent File
* The Tracker
* The Client
The Torrent File:
The torrent file, (created with Maketorrent), contains all the necessary information on what the file is, what tracker it uses to connect people, (or what tracker to announce to), and is essentially a schematic shell of what you want to download, including all file-checking information to ensure that downloaded files match hash checks.
The Tracker:
The tracker is the backbone to the whole system, your client will announce to the tracker at a designated interval, your current status of the transfer. The tracker will then send you a list of all the people/clients it is tracking, and their status, your client will then decipher this list and contact all the other clients and ask for the pieces you need to complete your download.
The Client:
The client is the program that completes the file for you, it will contact the tracker it a designated interval and receive a list of peers, your client will then communicate to each of those peers on the list and ask for the needed parts.
What do all these words mean? (Seeding, uploading,…………)
Here is a brief list of words associated with BitTorrent and their meanings.
Usually this refers to the small metadata file you receive from the web server (the one that ends in. torrent.) Metadata here means that the file contains information about the data you want to download, not the data itself. This is what is sent to your computer when you click on a download link on a website. You can also save the torrent file to your local system, and then click on it to open the BitTorrent download. This is useful if you want to be able to re-open the torrent later on without having to find the link again.
In some uses, it can also refer to everything associated with a certain file available with BitTorrent. For example, someone might say "I downloaded that torrent" or "that server has a lot of good torrents", meaning there are lots of good files available via BitTorrent on that server.
A peer is another computer on the internet that you connect to and transfer data. Generally a peer does not have the complete file, otherwise it would be called a seed. Some people also refer to peers as leeches, to distinguish them from those generous folks who have completed their download and continue to leave the client running and act as a seed.
A computer that has a complete copy of a certain torrent. Once your client finishes downloading, it will remain open until you click the Finish button (or otherwise close it.) This is known as being a seed or seeding. You can also start a BT client with a complete file, and once BT has checked the file it will connect and seed the file to others. Generally, it's considered good manners to continue seeding a file after you have finished downloading, to help out others. Also, when a new torrent is posted to a tracker, someone must seed it in order for it to be available to others. Remember, the tracker doesn't know anything of the actual contents of a file, so it's important to follow through and seed a file if you upload the torrent to a tracker.
When there are zero seeds for a given torrent (and not enough peers to have a distributed copy), then eventually all the peers will get stuck with an incomplete file, since no one in the swarm has the missing pieces. When this happens, someone with a complete file (a seed) must connect to the swarm so that those missing pieces can be transferred. This is called reseeding. Usually a request for a reseed comes with an implicit promise that the requester will leave his or her client open for some time period after finishing (to add longevity to the torrent) in return for the kind soul reseeding the file
Step-By-Step Download Process use special Torrent search engines to find. Torrent text files around the Net. A. torrent text file functions as a special pointer to locate a specific file and the swarm of people currently sharing that file. These .torrent files vary from 15kb to 150kb file size, and are published by serious Torrent sharers around the world.
2,you download the desired. Torrent file to your drive (this takes about 5 seconds per. torrent file at cable modem speeds). open the. Torrent file into your Torrent software. Usually, this is as simple as a a double-click on the. Torrent file icon, and the client software auto-launches. In other cases, this software will even open the Torrent file for you.
4.The Torrent client software will now talk to a tracker server for 2 to 10 minutes, while it scours the Internet for people to swarm with. Specifically, the client and tracker server will search for other users who have the same exact .torrent file as you.
5.As the tracker locates Torrent users to swarm with, each user will be automatically labeled as either a “leech/peer” or as a “seed” (users who have only part of the target file, versus users who have the complete target file). As you might guess, the more seeds you connect to, the faster your download will be. Commonly, 10 peers/leeches and 3 seeders is a good swarm for downloading a single song/movie.
6.The client software then begins the transfer. As the name “sharing” implies, every transfer will happen in both directions, “down” and “up” (leech and share).
*SPEED EXPECTATION: Cable and DSL modem users can expect an average of 25 megabytes per hour, sometimes slower if the swarm is small with less than 2 seeders. On a good day with a big swarm, however, you can download a 5MB song within 3 minutes, and a 900MB movie within 60 minutes.
7.Once the transfer is complete, leave your Torrent client software running for at least two hours. This is called "seeding" or "good karma", where you share your complete files to other users.
Suggestion: do your downloads just before you go to sleep at night. This way, you will seed your complete files, you will increase your upload/download ratio, and you will have complete downloaded files by the time you wake up!
8.Movie and music plug-ins: you will likely need to install media players and updated codec converters to play your downloads:
e.g. Windows Media Player, DivX, RealAudio, Daemon Tools Virtual CD/DVD. Click here for details on getting these plug-in players.
e.g. Xp Codec Pack and other coder-decoder converters.
9.Enjoy your movies and songs!
10.Fair warning: you will want a second hard drive once you start serious Torrent downloading. Songs and movies require large disk space, and an average P2P user commonly has 20 to 40 GB of media files at any one time. A second 250GB hard drive is common for serious P2P users, and the recent low prices on hard drives make it a good investment.
Torrent search engine sites are listed below. This list is compiled from hundreds of reader votes, and voted on each week by a small panel of torrent download users.
(September, 2007: Isohunt is barring American users from connecting to American torrent trackers. American users, however, can still use Isohunt to find torrents, and connect to third party trackers. If you want to use this tremendous Canadian site, you better use it while you can. Note: any torrent listed as "ISOhunt release" means that it is a file verified by the administrators...a nice feature to help you get authentic torrents, not fake files.) offers over 420,000 torrents in its database, the largest torrent index that is readily available to the public. September 2007 update: Torrentspy has declared that it will be forbidding American users from doing searches on its website, under pressure from the MPAA.
ThePirate, by readership size, is the most popular torrent search site today. Pirate Bay also has an immense database of 600,000+ torrents, the single largest database available on the web.
Demonoid Nov 9, 2007 update: The CRIA has threated Demonoid's ISP. Accordingly, Demonoid has shut down entirely for the time being. This is a sad day for torrent downloaders everywhere. Sep. 26, 2007 update: Canadian users can no longer access Details are forthcoming, but their Canadian ISP shut them down by court order. The Canadian Recording Industry Association is behind this court order. (a meta-search engine: Torrenscan is a search engine that searches other torrent search engines)

Dec 16, 2007

Tips to select AntiVirus

So you made the decision to Select an AntiVirus (AV) to safeguard your system. But stuck with what to look for in the AV?
Here are some of the tips that will help you in selecting the best AV for your computer:
- Load on System
- Type of subscription
- Ease of Upgradation
- Technical Support
- Frequency of the definitions or updates
Load on System
One of the common complaints from the users is that AV is taking lot of system resources. I think the problem could be caused at the startup of the computer where the most of the programs are configured to load and slow down the system. One way to get around this is to disable or delay or the startup of other applications. Remember it is very essential that AV loads at startup and not at a later time because some of the threats tend to load at startup and if they are allowed to load, they could even disable the AV.
Some of the other tips include, increasing the system RAM or Memory. Not only does this speed up the computing, but also allows you to multitask. Here is an easy and simple way to selectively allow programs to start:
1. Go to Start > Run
3. Click on the Startup tab
4. Uncheck the programs like Adobe, Winamp, MSN /Yahoo/Gtalk Messenger and etc
5. Click OK
Technical Support
Believe me, one factor that is going to have a major impact on your peace of mind is the Technical Support from your vendor on their product. I have seen people tear their hairs on the issues that can arise out of the blue.
Most of the problems arise while installing the product. Make sure you read the minimum hardware requirements, supported OS, incompatibility with other products before you decide to zero in on any product. Such information is published in the vendor website.
NOTE: You should Install and Use only One AntiVirus at a time. Having multiple AV to protect your system can cause all of them to malfunction and allow a threat to affect your system!
Technical support can be free or charged. Normally, free technical support is restricted to Knowledge Base Articles and Email or Chat support. KB articles are a good source of information for known issues and solutions for them. Some AV vendors even run support forum, where the solution comes from people like you and me.
Paid support comes in the form of Telephone calls. Here also you may have to go through the maze of IVRs to actually get to talk to the agent. By the time you get to talk to the agent you may be zapped, this does not end here….but to actually get the solution to your problem, you will have to shell out some money which may not be worthwhile. The charge for the paid support is almost equal to the half of the product price! (remember online search engines Google, Yahoo and MSN search are your friends!)
Frequency of virus definitions/updates
Well, if you think just installing an Antivirus would protect your system, hang on. You will also need to download the updates or antivirus definitions to keep up with the new threats. In this fast changing world of technology, newer threats in the form or Viruses, Worms and Trojans (Click here to read the difference between Viruses Worm and Trojans) come out each day. While it may be difficult for AV companies to keep the pace with all of them, some AV Vendors use heuristics to at least quarantine some of these. Symantec for example uses a technology called as Bloodhound to isolate the malicious threats for which complete information is not known. The common practice is this space for most AntiVirus vendors is to release the updates on a weekly basis. However, if there is an outbreak, the definitions to cure the same are released instantly to prevent any zero day attacks. Read the product information at the vendor’s site carefully to know the frequency of updates. An AV that does not get definitions on a periodic use may not be of much use.
Suggestion: Configure your AV to automatically download and install the updates as and when new updates are released.
Ease of Upgradation
The standard practice in the AntiVirus (AV) vendor space is that each year a newer version of the product is released. More often than not, you may end up upgrading to the newer version. Upgradation basically means installing a newer version over the existing version. So ensure that the AV you buy has the good track record of clean upgradation.
Some AV applications are known to have issues while upgrading from an older version to newer version. If not done correctly, they may leave traces in the registry and can cause major issues while installing. So watch out while you decide to Upgrade or Renew for Updates.
Type of Subscription
AV products generally have usage license for a period of one year. That is you pay and use for one year and after which you will have to renew it in order to receive the AV Updates / Virus definitions. Know the difference between Upgrade and Update.
An update is a periodic Antivirus definition or signature release from the vendor. This can be periodic, for example Symantec releases its Virus definition every Wednesday. Updates include Virus definitions, program improvements, patches etc.
An upgrade is the iteration in the version of the product. For example, you are using Norton Antivirus (NAV) 2007 and it is reaching its one year period and Symantec has now released NAV 2008. You will be presented an option to upgrade to the newer version or continue using the older version by renewing the subscription fees, in which case you will continue to use NAV 2007.
An upgrade normally costs little more than renewal and its better to go for an upgrade because there will bound to be improvements in the newer version.

Beep Code Description

Standard Original IBM POST Error Codes
Code Description
1 short beep System is OK
2 short beeps POST Error - error code shown on screen No beep Power supply or system board problem Continuous beep Power supply, system board, or keyboard problem Repeating short beeps Power supply or system board problem
1 long, 1 short beep System board problem
1 long, 2 short beeps Display adapter problem (MDA, CGA)
1 long, 3 short beeps Display adapter problem (EGA)
3 long beeps 3270 keyboard card
IBM POST Diagnostic Code Descriptions
100 - 199 System Board
200 - 299 Memory
300 - 399 Keyboard
400 - 499 Monochrome Display
500 - 599 Colour/Graphics Display
600 - 699 Floppy-disk drive and/or Adapter
700 - 799 Math Coprocessor
900 - 999 Parallel Printer Port
1000 - 1099 Alternate Printer Adapter
1100 - 1299 Asynchronous Communication Device, Adapter, or Port
1300 - 1399 Game Port
1400 - 1499 Colour/Graphics Printer
1500 - 1599 Synchronous Communication Device, Adapter, or Port
1700 - 1799 Hard Drive and/or Adapter
1800 - 1899 Expansion Unit (XT)
2000 - 2199 Bisynchronous Communication Adapter
2400 - 2599 EGA system-board Video (MCA)
3000 - 3199 LAN Adapter
4800 - 4999 Internal Modem
7000 - 7099 Phoenix BIOS Chips
7300 - 7399 3.5" Disk Drive
8900 - 8999 MIDI Adapter
11200 - 11299 SCSI Adapter
21000 - 21099 SCSI Fixed Disk and Controller
21500 - 21599 SCSI CD-ROM System
AMI BIOS Beep Codes Code Description
1 Short Beep System OK
2 Short Beeps Parity error in the first 64 KB of memory
3 Short Beeps Memory failure in the first 64 KB
4 Short Beeps Memory failure in the first 64 KB Operational of memory
or Timer 1 on the motherboard is not functioning
5 Short Beeps The CPU on the motherboard generated an error
6 Short Beeps The keyboard controller may be bad. The BIOS cannot switch to protected mode
7 Short Beeps The CPU generated an exception interrupt
8 Short Beeps The system video adapter is either missing, or its memory is faulty
9 Short Beeps The ROM checksum value does not match the value encoded in the BIOS
10 Short Beeps The shutdown register for CMOS RAM failed
11 Short Beeps The external cache is faulty
1 Long, 3 Short Beeps Memory Problems
1 Long, 8 Short Beeps Video Card Problems
Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes
Note - Phoenix BIOS emits three sets of beeps, separated by a brief pause.
Code Description
1-1-3 CMOS read/write failure
1-1-4 ROM BIOS checksum error
1-2-1 Programmable interval timer failure
1-2-2 DMA initialisation failure
1-2-3 DMA page register read/write failure
1-3-1 RAM refresh verification failure
1-3-3 First 64k RAM chip or data line failure
1-3-4 First 64k RAM odd/even logic failure
1-4-1 Address line failure first 64k RAM
1-4-2 Parity failure first 64k RAM
2-_-_ Faulty Memory
3-1-_ Faulty Motherboard
3-2-4 Keyboard controller Test failure
3-3-4 Screen initialisation failure
3-4-1 Screen retrace test failure
3-4-2 Search for video ROM in progress
4-2-1 Timer tick interrupt in progress or failure
4-2-2 Shutdown test in progress or failure
4-2-3 Gate A20 failure
4-2-4 Unexpected interrupt in protected mode
4-3-1 RAM test in progress or failure>ffffh
4-3-2 Faulty Motherboard
4-3-3 Interval timer channel 2 test or failure
4-3-4 Time of Day clock test failure
4-4-1 Serial port test or failure
4-4-2 Parallel port test or failure
4-4-3 Math coprocessor test or failure
Low 1-1-2 System Board select failure
Low 1-1-3 Extended CMOS RAM failure

Dec 9, 2007

Internet tips

Increase u r internet Speed........
Trick 1.
follow the step:-
go to desktop->My computer-(right click on)->properties->then go HARDWARE tab->Device
manager-> now u see a window of Device manager
then go to Ports->Communication Port(double click on it and Open).
after open u can see a Communication Port properties.
go the Port Setting:----
and now increase ur "Bits per second" to 128000.
and "Flow control" change 2 Hardware.
Trick 2.
type this coding in notepad and save as .reg and then execute this file....this will increase ur surfing n downloading speed.....
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Servic es\Tcpip\Parameters]
Trick 3.
follow these steps:-
1.Click on Start, Run, gpedit.msc, .
2. On the window that will show up, click on Administrative Templates, Network, QoS Packet Scheduler
3. On the right side pane, double click Limit reservable bandwidth. Change this configuration from “not configured” to “Enabled” and the reduce Bandwidth limit (%) from 20% to 0.
4. Click on Ok and restart your computer.
Improve your dialup modem preformance
You can't assume that just because you connected at a speed like 48.3KBps that you will stay there. Today's modems automatically fall back to a lower speed if the line noise is too high to maintain a faster connection, but sometimes they fall back too soon or too far.
Here's how to do it:
Click Start the button.
Select Settings.
Click Control Panel.
Double-click on the Modems icon.
Select your modem.
Click the Properties button.
Click the Connections tab.
Click the Advanced button.
In the "Extra settings" field, type S36=7
Click OK to save your settings.
This will force your modem to try to stay connected at high speeds in two different ways before dropping back to an asynchronous mode with auto speed buffering.
Increase the speed of your internet connection without a new modem
As more and more people get quick connections to the internet, such as cable or ADSL, it becomes apparent to the user of a simple dial-up modem that the World Wide Web can quickly turn into the World Wide Wait. Here a trick that can help speed up your current modem without shelling out the big bucks.
There is a setting located in your windows registry called the Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU). This determines the size of the packets of data sent between your and your server. In Windows 95, this setting is has a value of 1,500 bytes when the actual size of internet packets is 1,000 bytes. This can sometimes slow things down. To remedy the situation, simply follow these steps:
In the registry editor (Start > Run > regedit.exe),
navigate to
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Class\NetTrans. In the NetTrans folder you should find another folder named "000x" in which x represents a fourth digit. Right-click on the "000x" folder and select New and StringValue. Rename the item that appears in the panel on the right side to MaxMTU, then double-click it to bring up the Edit String box and give it a velue of 1002.

Remember to keep playing with the MaxMTU value until you feel that your internet connection has greatly sped up. Some people report huge speed gains using this tricks, while others hardly notice a difference. In any case, it's definetly worth a try.
Running Network Diagnostics
Network Diagnostics scans your system to gather information about your hardware, software, and network connections.
Start / Run / NETSH DIAG GUI
The following is the type of information that can be displayed:
* Ping
* Connect
* Show
* Verbose
* Save to Desktop
* Mail Service
* News Service
* Internet Proxy Server
* Computer Information
* Operating System
* Windows Version
* Modems
* Network Clients
* Network Adapters
* Domain Name System (DNS)
* Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
* Default Gateways
* Internet Protocol Address
* Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)
IP Commands
Display Connection Configuration: ipconfig /all
Display DNS Cache Info Configuration: ipconfig /displaydns
Clear DNS Cache:ipconfig /flushdns
Release All IP Address Connections: ipconfig /release
Renew All IP Address Connections IP Configuration: ipconfig /renew
Refresh DHCP and Re-Register the DNS connections: ipconfig /registerdns
Display DCHP Class Information: ipconfig /showclassid
Change/Modify DHCP Class ID: ipconfig /setclassid
Network Connections:control netconnections
Network Setup Wizard: netsetup.cpl
Test Connectivity: ping Example: ping
Trace IP address Route: tracert
Displays the TCP/IP protocol sessions: netstat
Display Local Route: route
Display Resolved MAC Addresses: arp
Chat with command prompt
If you want personal chat with a friend
you don't need to download any yahoo messenger
all you need is your friends IP address and Command Prompt.
Firstly, open Notepad and enter:
@echo off
set /p n=User:
set /p m=Message:
net send %n% %m%
Goto A
Now save this as "Messenger.bat". Open the .bat file and in Command
Prompt you should see:
After "User" type the IP address of the computer you want to contact.
After this, you should see this:
Now type in the message you wish to send.Before you press "Enter" it should look like this:
Message: Hi Naveen
Now all you need to do is press "Enter", and start chatting!
Javascript Fun [Edit Any Webpage]edit any web page...........
Use javascript to edit any web-site (just for fun).
Go to the web-site that you want to edit and at the adress bar type this:
javascript:nick=document.body;nick.contentEditable='true'; document.designMode='on'; void 0
You can login with multiple id's on the same yahoo messenger without any download or patch.
Follow these steps:
1.Go to Start > Run . Type regedit, and then enter.
2.Navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER > Software>yahoo>pager>Test
3.On the right page, right-click and choose new Dword value.
4.Rename it as Plural.
5.Double click and assign a decimal value of 1.
It’s done!!
Now close registry and restart yahoo messenger and try Multiple Login
How to find the IP address of the sender in Gmail, Yahoo! mail or Hotmail
When you receive an email, you receive more than just the message. The email comes with headers that carry important information that can tell where the email was sent from and possibly who sent it. For that, you would need to find the IP address of the sender. The tutorial below can help you find the IP address of the sender. Note that this will not work if the sender uses anonymous proxy servers.
Finding IP address in Gmail
1. Log into your Gmail account with your username and password.
2. Open the mail.
3. To display the headers,
* Click on More options corresponding to that thread. You should get a bunch of links.
* Click on Show original
4. You should get headers like this:
Gmail headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by a few hostnames and an IP address between square brackets
That is be the IP address of the sender!
5. Track the IP address of the sender
Finding IP address in Yahoo! Mail
1. Log into your Yahoo! mail with your username and password.
2. Click on Inbox or whichever folder you have stored your mail.
3. Open the mail.
4. If you do not see the headers above the mail message, your headers are not displayed. To display the headers,
* Click on Options on the top-right corner
* In the Mail Options page, click on General Preferences
* Scroll down to Messages where you have the Headers option
* Make sure that Show all headers on incoming messages is selected
* Click on the Save button
* Go back to the mails and open that mail
5. You should see similar headers like this:
Yahoo! Headers: name
Look for Received: from followed by the IP address between square brackets [ ].
That is be the IP address of the sender!
6. Track the IP address of the sender
Finding IP address in Hotmail
1. Log into your Hotmail account with your username and password.
2. Click on the Mail tab on the top.
3. Open the mail.
4. If you do not see the headers above the mail message, your headers are not displayed. To display the headers,
* Click on Options on the top-right corner
* In the Mail Options page, click on Mail Display Settings
* In Message Headers, make sure Advanced option is checked
* Click on Ok button
* Go back to the mails and open that mail
5. If you find a header with X-Originating-IP: followed by an IP address, that is the sender's IP address
Hotmail headers : name ,In this case the IP address of the sender is []. Jump to step 9.
6. If you find a header with Received: from followed by a Gmail proxy like this
Hotmail headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by IP address within square brackets[].
Multi Google Talk
Just follow the simple steps Below:
1)Right click on the Google Talk shortcut.
2)click on Properties.
3)Go to Shortcut tab on Google Talk Properties window.
4)On the Target textbox, add in the /nomutex to the end of the line so that it looks like below (or you can simply copy and paste the below syntax and replace the original).
“c:\program files\google\google talk\googletalk.exe” /nomutex
5)Click on OK.
I didn't have to do anything after this nd clicking on the shortcut multiple times just gave me different google talk window.
To create a new shortcut for Google Talk:
1)Right-click on the desktop or anywhere you want to place the GTalk shortcut.
2)Select New on the right click context menu.
3)Then select Shortcut.
4)Copy and paste the following line to the text box when prompted to type the location of the item:
“c:\program files\google\google talk\googletalk.exe” /nomutex
5)Click on Next.
6)Give the shortcut a proper name such as Google Talk or Google
Talk Multiple or Google Talk Polygamy.
8)Click OK until you are done.
Block Or Unblock Websites without software !
Many times in schools, colleges & offices surfing some sites like orkut,etc are banned !To overcome this you can unblock these or block some other websites and play pranks !Do The Following :fFor eg you want to block !* Open the folder C:WINDOWSsystem32driversetc* There you will find a file named HOSTS* Click on the file and press SHIFT and now right click on it .* From the right click menu select Open with .* Now, select Notepad to open the file from the list !* Now, in the file under the line localhost add another line as* Now, File>>Save !Now, open your web browser and try openning , it will not load !To unblock sites just do the vice versa !
Reading Cookies
well.... reading cookies is not a big deal... all u need to do is use some sense & logics...
let me explain wit example:
First-> Delete all the cookies from your pc's.
Now go to orkut & login wit ur user id & password.
Now go to cookies folder & see how many cookies r stored there... you will find many cookies.... now start reading/opening all the cookies.... in some cookies... u will find something like
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Set-Cookie: GoogleAccountsLocale_session=en